Cost of energy losses: they are costs that occur throughout the study period and its value is proportional to the square of the load, which can remain constant or change during the plan period, but it is necessary to estimate since it can not be known a priori. Cost of maintenance: they are costs that occur throughout the period under consideration and, in the case of lines and cables can be considered proportional to the size of the network and depending on the type of conductor used, the type of run ( sitting, stretching, subway, …) or geographical issues (salinity, ice, trees, level Keraunic). To determine the quality, quantity, flow and optimization of these networks, using so-called Network analyzers are instruments capable of analyzing the above properties of electrical networks, especially those properties associated with reflection and transmission of signals power, known as scatter common and often described as the lowest quality. Basic architecture of a network analyzer models found most often in the market are the two ports, but there are also four-port models, and some have some improvements to its easy operation, such as touch screen and possibility to connect a mouse or keyboard using PS / 2 or USB, including the newer models have a Windows-based platform so that its operation is simplified considerably. A new category of network analyzers is the MTA (Microwave Transition Analyzer), which means microwave transition analyzer, or LSNA (Large Signal Network Analyzer), which means network analyzer long signals, which measure the amplitude and phase fundamental harmonic. The MTA was first marketed the LSNA, but were missing the first few options for easy calibration are included on the version LSNA. Calibration The calibration of a network analyzer is a high precision process which should be taken into account both the impedance which is operating (50 Ohms, the cell phone or 75 Ohms for other applications) and the conditions under which the equipment is operating.
For this reason, and depending on the number of parameters-S is required to measure the process can be long and tedious for the amount of times you have to repeat. The calibration standard uses three test devices called OPEN (open network), SHORT (short circuit network) and THROUGH (wired network), which must be connected to the ports of the analyzer so that it can compare and make a difference between these three modes, these data are stored in a register and each registration must be calibrated independently and the time you make a change to the system under study. Another type of instrument for the calibration of network analyzer calibration module is the electric (E-Cal), which connects to this and is automatically recognized and has a higher precision equipment Manual calibration mentioned above. The only apparent disadvantage of this device is to be expected to reach its operating temperature before use. There are currently analyzers multifunctional next-generation networks that substantially improve the performance: Accuracy: Some computers have an accuracy class of 0.06%. Robustness: Backed by 4 years of warranty. Connectivity: This is the meters with more connectivity options market, the Nexus 1672, including all plasma parameters read in a customizable web page.