COMPONENTS of a SOLAR electric system having treated the fundamentals of electricity and the sources of the same in the first part of this text, we now submit to briefly explain the components or parts of a complete system where one of them is precisely the Solar Panel or photovoltaic module. (*) Basic-the main components are: solar Panel or photovoltaic module controller or controller battery or accumulator inverter or converter below summarizes each of these components. 1. Solar panel or photovoltaic module is grilled or Board where cells or solar cells are installed. These joined together by wires in series made of Tin (96%), Silver (3.5%) and copper (0.5%) whose thickness is just 3 mm. Photovoltaic module where occurs the so-called photovoltaic effect, which is not but the transformation of solar energy or luminous energy (by the Sun’s rays that lead called photons) to electrical energy. The basic composition of the solar cells is monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon which by its nature involves energy at different scales as we shall see in the following articles.
These modules are now in artificial satellites, traffic signs, luminous signs, highway, etc. But the most spectacular development of this energy source is without a doubt, in rural areas (electrification of houses, farms and hamlets) or at isolated sites whose electricity supply service is often impossible by other means. 2 Controller or controller electronics that they preserve the life of the batteries, avoid overloads (gasification) and on downloads (crossing of cells) and protect the loads and the system overall shorts. It helps to manipulate the State of the system by current indicators, showing the State of charge of the battery. He joined the solar panel with battery, undertakes, in other words, that battery will continue to receive power from the panel that makes the battery life much greater. Some incorporate luminous and audible alarms prior sleep, to allow the user to take appropriate measures making provided that the system always operates at the point of maximum efficiency.