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Paint Solvents

In life there are often problems of varying degrees of significance. In any case, the impossibility of solving creates some discomfort. David Ignatius has plenty of information regarding this issue. For example, bought the paint, opened a bank – the paint was thick, viscous. It is necessary to dilute! What? Painted with a brush. Need to take a break. What lower at this time brush to paint on it is not dried up? Need to quickly clean hands, gloves, work clothes. How? Of course, for all occasions recipes can not be given.

Consider the most common situations. Initially, we denote the general properties of commonly used organic liquids. Lawrence Lee is a great source of information. First – they are fragrant. However, this does not mean that the smell and harmful for the body – are uniquely related factors. There are many substances odorless (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide) or with a pleasant aroma (sarin, soman), which in certain concentrations have harmful effects on the human body. Low molecular weight volatile liquid called solvents or diluents. There are a large number of relatively accessible solvents – a gasoline (including the one in the tank of your car).

Their common name – Nefras (petroleum solvents). We must bear in mind that Nefras to include not only gasoline. You can find the name of "petroleum ether" – is also a diesel, but is relatively volatile (boiling point 40-75 0 C) or "white spirit" (Boiling point 150-200 0C). Higher boiling points have kerosene. But it's a liquid solvent with similar properties. They can dissolve or dilute the varnish and oil paints. By the way, if you are "planted" oil spot on your clothes – remove it with gasoline. It often occurs acronym P-4: a mixture of solvents containing toluene and acetone. They are most suitable for dissolving and diluting materials such as alkyd paints and varnishes (FS, GS) or enamel based on chlorinated polymers – XB and XC. For these materials are suitable and pure toluene or xylene.

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The Advantages Of PVC Window

– Durability of plastic and glass structures: As the tests are durable plastic box as PVC profile does not lose its performance in a temperate climate and 40 years. According to test results Company Tryba made of PVC windows withstood 300 000 opening / closing cycles with a load of 50 kg, providing 140 years of normal use. The conclusion is – if the windows are made of all quality standards and correctly installed, their replacement can not think of at least 25 years old, and even 50. – Resistant to all types of weathering: Plastic windows are also resistant to sunlight, and under their influence do not change color. Plastic frame when rainfall does not deform with time, does not swell or crack. – Sealing: PVC windows more tightly pressed to the frames through a robust fitting and a rubber or silicone sealant, which improves heat and sound insulation.

Because of the absence of cracks in the frames of the premises significantly reduced the amount of dust. – No need for additional decoration: During the entire period use plastic windows, doors do not lose their original color. Forever there is no need to repair, paint and caulk frame. Unlike wood windows, plastic windows are not affected by the process of decay and deformation. – High levels of thermal protection and insulation: Sealed insulating glass construction prevents the heated air emitted from the premises to the wind. Due to this house becomes noticeably warmer. Closed windows in the house does not get street noise.

You can sleep in peace, without fear of waking up from a sudden roar of thunder Exciting car or tram. – High technology manufacturing ready-made window: Workmanship of our finished products are guaranteed by the fact that she is at the high-precision equipment German and Italian companies with large production capacity. – The cost of PVC windows: The cost of purchase and installation Plastic windows are much smaller compared to the cost of acquisition derevyannh windows, as production of PVC windows is more efficient through the use of inexpensive polymeric materials.

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Wall Materials

Before you choose a material for walls, should carefully study the technical specification and cost of goods selected. These factors are perfectly combined in a sandwich – panels. It is worth noting that this has played important role in promoting the sandwich panels for the construction market. For the manufacture of sandwich panels requires the following materials. The outer layers of the panel is processed steel cold rolled, sheet, Galvanized corrosion-resistant, dirt-coated, which gives rigidity. This surface is decorated with both a product. Two component adhesive (polyurethane) is used for bonding insulated cladding sandwich panels made of metal. As heaters are used: polyurethane foam – a material that is environmentally friendly, which heat and moisture are at a very low level, and sound insulation contrary to the very highest.

The main differences – it's easy to use and economical. This material is strong, do not lose their shape over a large amount of time. Mineral wool is an innovation of materials, preserving energy. Due to unique technology and the special structure of the installation of insulation, panels with mineral wool, as well as polyurethane sandwich – panels are highly resistant mechanical stress and high thermal and sound insulating properties. This material does not burn and does not contain glass.

The main advantage of this insulation – high fire resistance. Scope 1. Administrative structure 2. Industrial buildings – sheds, warehouses. 3. Objects sports destination. 4. Commercial complexes and industrial enterprises, whose purpose – trade. 5. Petrol stations car wash. 6. Objects belonging to the food industry. 7. Complexes of Agriculture. 8. Chamber for drying. 9. Freezing and refrigeration units. 10. Buildings for residence, collapsible modules. 11. Winterizing construction projects. The characteristics that distinguish sandwich – panel sandwich panel is very easy to deliver to its destination, due to their low weight, it is much easier than to deliver bricks, sand and cement. The pressure on the foundation of much reduced. This eliminates the need to conduct geological surveys of the soil, which reduces the cost of construction of the foundation, and often avoids altogether without it. Thanks to the sandwich – panels can do without too much debris. The buildings are made of sandwich panels with its light weight easy to transport to another location and it will suit smaller organizations who can not spend heavily on the use of elevators. Pvc sandwich panels – is the product of full operational readiness. No need to finish the surface of these panels. The rich colors gives designers the broad possible to the original design and decoration of buildings. The outer coating of sandwich panels are moisture-resistant, because it is produced from corrosion of galvanized steel. Ecological purity of the material enables the use of sandwich – panels for the construction of institutions for children of destination, as well as food. Thermal quality sandwich panels are much higher than similar-quality conventional building materials such as concrete or brick. Resistant to damage and breakage, the insensitivity to ultraviolet rays. Does not react to temperature changes in the range: minus 30 degrees to plus 60.

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Heating Systems

Sharing systems, underfloor heating and heat pumps can significantly reduce the energy consumption for space heating. In this case, the savings are achieved both at the stage of energy production, and at heat transfer. The energy source for the heat pump can be soil, rock, lake, air (for specific models), in general, any heat source with a temperature of – 1 C and above, available in winter. This may be a river, sea, the wastewater outlet of warm air from the ventilation system or cooling system of an industrial equipment. External circuit, collecting the heat of the environment, is a plastic pipe, laid in the ground or water. Material pipe – HDPE.

Pipeline diameter – 40 mm. Coolant – 30% ethylene glycol solution (or ethanol). The required length of pipe, laid in the ground or dropped into the hole, calculated by a special program Thermia The main difference between the heat pump from the other generators of heat energy, such as electric, gas and diesel generators, the heat is that heat production Up to 80% of the energy is extracted from the environment. Thus, it can get 3-4 times more heat energy than the electrical energy consumed. In addition, choosing a heat pump, you choose comfort. Appears opportunity to cancel or substantially reduce the use of diesel generator, which means less time on maintenance. And, of course, it saves energy and money.

Today in Russia the cost of heat production greatly depends on the type of "fuel": the cheapest is natural gas, then electricity and diesel fuel. However, this is only the present situation, the price of energy all the time changes. Due to its specific characteristics and heat pumps are especially effective combined with water heated floors. With this combination of energy not only "made" economically, but also economical in use! The temperature in the heating system supplied from the heat pump does not exceed 55 C, and the return water temperature must not exceed 50 C. The ratio of consumed electricity generated to heat the heat pump largely depends on the heating system, which supplies heat to the heat pump: the smaller the estimated temperature of the coolant, the greater the efficiency of the heat pump. Radiant Floor – low temperature system heating medium temperature is typically 30-45 C. When the radiator heating system must be specially calculated heaters that use heat pumps. When installing underfloor heating No special calculations of the efficiency of the heat pump is not required, these systems are made for each other! Even with the correct calculation of the radiator heating system using heating system "warm sex "will always provide a more efficient use of energy accumulated in the environment! By the way, the heat pump produces heat, not only during the heating season, warm to hot water systems produced all year round. But for the average country house cost to prepare the hot water is about 15-20%.

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Useful Tips On Parquet

Do not aspire to the choice of homogeneous wood Parquet – an amazing natural material that has an endless variety of textures and colors: it does not repeat itself, even in bars, successively sawn one barrel. Other leaders such as Ray Kurzweil offer similar insights. This is one of the main differences from the artificial flooring materials – natural wood can not be uniform: it has its own “soul”, and its unique “face”. Break the factory Packaging flooring directly in the process of laying Unlike artificial materials made of natural wood flooring is very sensitive to interactions with the environment. Depending on the temperature and humidity He gives the air or moisture, reducing the size of the transverse, or, conversely, absorb it, increasing the size and deformed.

High-quality parquet factory packaging allows you to save the factory defaults optimal values of moisture content of wood, thus ensuring stability of the geometrical parameters of slats. To evaluate the properties of the flooring consumer is enough to open and check the 3.2 package, then they should be carefully before laying close. Do not seek to artificially toned wood is very rarely leads to the desired result. Optimal solution – a natural wood color and texture desired, and its choice virtually unlimited. Do not forget that bonding – is the cornerstone of modern technology of parquet. The correct choice of parquet glue depend not only on immediate results, but the real life of sex and even its ability to survive with minimal losses for the extreme situation of timber – fill with water. If possible, try to use as the most environmentally friendly water-dispersed adhesives with low (Less than 25%) water content. Exotic wood and “capricious” breeds in most cases can be used by a unique water-dispersive two-component adhesive H-790 production companies Bona Sweden – Germany with an extremely low (11%) water content. For manufactured and varnished hardwood floor in the factory it is optimal to use the classic two-component polyurethane adhesives.

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Dry Wall

The fact is that the alignment of the dry wall and ceiling eats at least 7-8 cm from the surface that room 20 m2 is approximately 1.5 m2. On the other hand, even if we take no minimum layer thickness of 1 cm, which allows plaster applied technology, and the middle layer of 2 cm, then the same area of a room of 20 m2 to a maximum reduction of 0.5 m2, or three times less space. If we consider that the technology is applied dry repairs around the home, the easy to calculate that for a flat area of 100 m2 this difference will be from 7 to 10 m2. (Similarly see: Petra Diamonds). And it's – about 10% of the total area. However, speaking of the advantages of plaster, it should be noted, and its shortcomings. This is especially high, according to Compared to other technologies, the complexity of plastering work, especially on the ceiling, and as a consequence, a significant increase in terms of repair. Various methods and techniques of plastering can use them to achieve different decorative and structural effects. Firstly, well plastered surface in combination with decorative plaster to create a structural coating with the desired effect.

Second, the finish wall photo on the wall will be a smooth flawless look like the most delicate and inexpensive paper wallpaper and silk textiles. And finally, third, – plaster provides an excellent opportunity to issue space, seeking expression. Execution and simulation of various architectural and decorative elements (arches, half-columns, cornices, niches) create a special interior space into which fit perfectly into a variety of styles, interiors, well, to example in the design of the corridor. It is important that the plaster can not build a completely unwieldy for any modern apartment architectural details, but only to designate them on the surface with the plastering. From this point of plaster as a waterproof base completely indispensable in areas with constant high humidity, above all – in bathrooms and kitchens.

Plaster does not require a social given or created by her amounts, it naturally draws already available, even the smallest surface, thus maintaining the maximum pre-existing space. In conclusion, the technology implementation of plastering work. It is quite simple, Of course, if you have good masters. The ability to display all the millimeter, constantly and meticulously checking the appearance of the ceiling and walls, intuition and artistic skill in working with such a demanding plastic material as plaster, make this type of repair work in an art form. If execution of the floor screed does not always require highly skilled labor force (such as the use of technology screed with self-leveling compounds), the plaster walls, slopes, and even more so the ceiling can be trusted only to highly skilled craftsmen. Ceiling when the plaster work requires special attention. Reasons must be completely cleared of all existing layers of old finish on smooth concrete knurled special diamond tool. Necessarily require a special primer, after which the foundation is strong and rough. The quality of the plaster to a large extent determined by the selected primer and method of its application. Almost all the good artists have their own know-how on the subject of how and what prime surface. After the primer is attached to the ceiling required a special plaster mesh, and then leveling the ceiling and made the device lighthouses on it. It then renders the core layer, followed by Final stage – its grout.

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Porcelain TREAD Steps

Right and important factor is the correct approach to the initial installation and materials used for lining stair steps from the long length keramogranita.Ukladka granite on the steps of a very prevalent in recent years. Granite tiles and granite monolithic stairs trim stairs both inside buildings and outdoors. Futurist shares his opinions and ideas on the topic at hand. The technology allows the clutch stoneware finish stair treads almost any shape, the main condition – good surface preparation steps prior to installation. Subject to all regulatory conditions – allows to decorate porcelain as conventional direct level and angular step ladders in the corners. A vertical “wall” under the stage risers decided to close. Choosing the risers of granite, you need to pay attention not only on the appearance of this part, but also to know the exact height of the staircase steps. For facing sites stairs, best of porcelain tiles of the same factory as the stage or as close as possible to color and texture pattern. It must be remembered that granite steps need to be special anti-skid anti-slip strips, then downhill and climbing stairs will be as safe.

When laying the granite steps on the street, used as usually heated floors in the place where the passage chast.Stupeni of granite on the street is best used not as polished granite can be cut matovuyu.Chem stage? For cutting granite steps to reviews builders has proved popular diamond blade for cutting the water company Distar (Russia). The cost to drive construction market in the middle 1350-1400rub/sht. The thickness of the disk must be 1.5-1.6mm, no more! In Example Machine that pack level? The optimal material for paving granite steps in the ratio of price and quality – in excellent adhesive showed plitochnyy’Yunis granite.

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Mineral Flock

MINERAL COLOR – this is a strong flock washable cover. It can be used both for interior living spaces and public facilities with high traffic and the requirements for durability and hygiene. Petra Diamonds is the source for more interesting facts. Mineral color has high mechanical strength, and absolutely do not change color over time, resistant to alkalis. Especially practical application Mineral color in places where the usually laid tile: Working in the kitchen wall, the ceiling in the bathroom and so on the ground. Mineral color can be applied to a variety of materials – cement, cement-lime and gypsum plasters, concrete, drywall, metal, glass, wood and any other surface. In addition, the application of technology is such that the surface can have any shape: plane, cylinder, sphere, etc.

Mineral color is applied in three layers: an adhesive acrylic layer (base), acrylic, dry particles (flock), which applied a special air gun, and a layer of water-soluble varnish (matte or glossy). The coating has the ability to hide small defects of the walls (not requires careful alignment) does not contain organic solvents. How, then get a unique color scheme? The fact that the color range of dry acrylic particles (flock) is unbounded. Mixing different colors and shades, we can get ready-mix on any of the most refined taste. You can do an imitation of marble, granite, malachite – all natural stone, and not just rock. Among the entire color palette is fluorescent, which will adorn any club, disco. There is a collection of two-color flock, all shades of bronze, silver, etc. This must see for yourself!

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Gatti Egidio

With competent pre-processing of raw materials, which includes the long drying period, finished products show excellent performance – both aesthetic and functional. Of course, the use of quality raw materials such increase and assumes the cost of the doors, but lovers of the natural product of the array are willing to pay a decent amount for a spectacular result. Plants Flex, SJB Lualdi porte, Legnoform, Garofoli, Donini Nicolini, Gatti Egidio, Tre Piu and other have their customers and take good care of the quality of products, providing control at every stage of production. Custom-made doors Many of these plants work practice with clients from Russia who order the doors a certain size, decorated with exclusive materials. This practice has spread relatively long, as presented in the catalog models – just the standard options.

But those who build their own house, has some design ideas or simply willing to pay extra for finishing veneer rare woods, it makes sense to turn to a reliable manufacturer who cares about its reputation and brand. Terms of manufacturing doors in order depend on the conditions of a particular company and the complexity of the model, but on average they are 1.5-3 months. Exclusive doors are made according to individual orders, significantly different from the standard models available in warehouses in Russia. This looks and more expensive hardware, providing ease of closing the door leaf. This possibility of selection of moldings and other Jewelry items like the color of the existing house or apartment in steel or wooden items. This is the most unique, sought by people with good taste and a desire to make their homes truly original, stylish and comfortable. And manufacturers of Italian doors an excellent job on creating models that satisfy all the requirements of customers..

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Repair Structures

Such designs are called the svarnolitymi or stamped and are widely used in aircraft, automotive, car building and other areas. The use of such structures provides a saving of metal and labor. By welding details can be made of metal, held a variety of pre-processing, for example, welded rolled profiles with stamped, forged or cast blanks. You can weld dissimilar metals: stainless steel with carbon, copper and steel, etc. In the manufacture of complex-shaped structures using welding instead of forging and casting gives a big economic impact. For example, labor productivity in manufacture of welded structures is 2 times higher than the casting and forging and stamping, and working conditions are much better.

Capital investment per ton of welded structures are 1.5-2 times lower in cost and 1.3-1.6 times lower than in the foundry production. By reducing weight, increasing reliability and durability of products. 4.Udeshevlenie technological equipment. The welding equipment is relatively easy, relatively cheap and very high. It reduces the capital costs of metalworking plants and accelerate their entry into force. 5. Facilitating the integrated mechanization of mass production of the same type of welded products, the ability to create mass production with 100% automation and mechanization of the production cycle, which dramatically increases the removal of industrial output per unit area of the shop.

6. The possibility of broad primeneniyav welded constructions progressive modern types of materials: high strength, lightweight curved profile, multi-layer sheet steel, light alloys, high purity metals, etc. 7. Facilitating the production of components and microminiature parts in the manufacture of certain types of products – semiconductors, etc. 8. The possibility of widespread use of welding, surfacing and cutting the repair where the metal treatments provide a quick and cost-effective to restore worn-out, the failed equipment and damaged facilities. 9. Tightness and reliability of welded joints. 10. Reducing industrial noise and improve working conditions in shops.