The Disequilibrium

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That is, if it will be able to act on the knowledge object to insert it in a reception system. – From deriving results of its biological research, Piaget concluded that all the species inherit two basic trends: organization and adaptation. – Organization – combination, ordinance, recombination, reordenao of behaviors and thoughts in coherent systems. – Adaptation – the people also inherit the trend of if adaptarem to its environment. the adaptation engloba two basic processes: assimilation and room. – According to Piaget, to organize, to assimilate and to accomodate can be seen as a complex act of stabilization. It affirms that the changes effective in the thought occur due to a equilibrao process. – To apply a specific project to one determined situation and this to function, then exists such balance, but if the project not to produce a result satisfactory then exists the disequilibrium.

Therefore we are in constant process of assimilation and room and with this our dumb thought and progresses continuously. – Other essential factors for the cognitivo development: maturation and social interaction. Maturation? if it relates to the cognitivas functions. Social interaction – interchange of ideas between people. Here, the interaction with other people makes with that it has a disequilibrium in relation the knowledge physical and logical? mathematician. When the thoughts of the child enter in conflict with the thoughts of another child or same with an adult, it will start then to question its thoughts.

– The development of the individual is initiated in the intrauterine period and goes until the 15 or 16 years. Piaget says that the embryology human being also evolves after the birth, creating more complex structures each time. The construction of intelligence of -, therefore in successive stages, with increasing complexities, chained some to the others. To this Piaget it called ' ' construtivismo seqencial' '. According to Piaget, the development of the express reasoning if in the following stages: Sensrio? engine (0-2 years) Pr? operational (2-7 years) Operacional concrete (7-11 years) Operacional deed of division (11-adult) – Piaget believed that all the people passed accurately for the same periods of training in the same order.

Genetic Engineering

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Initially it will not be necessary to place itself in a defensive situation, in relation to that if it relates to the transgnicos. Currently we try significant advances in some sectors of the cattle bovine, either it of cut or milk, or of commercial position or chickens it abates for it, in the transgnicas vaccine production from the alfalfa or of genetic markers that they search to identify gens melhoradores and many they are happened of the transgenia. But also situations exist where the hand of the man, promotes of indirect form the natural transgenia, in the specific case, animal improvement. It does not make use of resources technician and nor of laboratories. The nature is the great laboratory.

The transgenia (Transgenia is the insertion, in the genome of a receiving organism, through techniques of Genetic Engineering, one or more gotten genes of different individuals, that they can be of the same species of the receiving individual, or of different species.), in the reality comes advancing of form sped up in branch of the food production. Opposing the catastrophic forecasts regarding the English shepherd of the Church continental Anglicana, Thomases Malthus, in case that they did not come to occur no type of significant natural disaster, wars or epidemics, as controlling elements of the population growth to each 25 years, would not have foods enough to feed this population that grew in geometric progression, while the food production in arithmetical progression. That is to each 25 years much people would have that to die. Shepherd of the anglicano apocalypse. The transgenia appeared to give certain dose of tranquillity in relation to the food lack.

In contrast it advances of coherent form and insurance in this question. Currently the transgnicos exist contrary positions to all what concerns and this has a considerable value. The measure that exists responsible positions contradictory and with logical basement and concrete, is prevented exageros and forces the commitment with the ethics and the environment.

The Bath

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As it did not have lesson in that night, it left the direct work for house, where it passed the night crying, regretful person for having yielded, hating itself, for having if gotten passionate. To put, with the rising of the day, was born in Tnia a hatred, a desire of so strong revenge how much the passion despertada for that man and both the feelings fought between itself, for the space in its heart. It made of the bath, that morning, a ceremony, in the attempt to take off of its body and of its heart, any vestige of homesickness of Valdir, looking for a way of feriz it, if avenging, of humiliates it. It thought about looking for the wife of it and to count what it had happened enters the two, but soon took off this idea of the head, therefore wise person who Valdir would go to find a skill of convinces it that it was lie, spite of a woman rejected for it. Masculinidade thought then about defames it in its, thing that nobody would believe because women more liberal of company that already had if involved with it they would contradict, and worse still, they could to say that, if it failed would have been due to ability of it as woman, what would make to disappear completely what remained of its auto one esteem, strengthening the hypothesis of woman rejected for it. Calmer and conformed it was to work, but determined not to leave that nobody in the company or the school was knowing of its pain, and to facilitate the things, changed the schedule of the course so that it did not have that it finds it. It gave up its diet and it started to lunch in the restaurant of the company with some fellow workers, exactly knowing that Valdir appeared for there of time in when.

Billings APA

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For the fact of being distant of the main quarters, in the last few decades had to the population crecimento of the cities, the sprouting of land divisions around of the dams Billings and Guarapiranga occurred, being thus the city grew each time more for the South, invading an extensive area of remaining Atlantic Bush of the city of So Paulo and the region Metropolitan. After 2000, when the interest for the area was despertou, mainly caused by the problems that occurred there, the city hall and the Secretariat of the Green and Environment they had year introduced some programs (public politics) in the attempt to diminish the problems caused for the irregular occupation and the contamination of the dams. The main program dated of 1996 eh known as Program Sources (SVMA, 2001) whose objective is the recovery ambient partner of slum quarters and located precarious land divisions in the region of the Guarapiranga dam. After four years paralyzed, in 2005 the Program was extended and started to also act in the areas of the Billings dam. Had its recent creation, the APA Capivari – Monos is reflected of a new politics of environment in Brazil. The governments are investing of legal form to create units of protection, whose objectives are to keep and to brake the advance of the populations on area of excellent ecological interest and the integral and controlled protection of the diverse ecosystems found in Brazil. 2.4 The Institute Chico Mendes the Areas of Ambient Protection are Unidades de Conservao of the nature of sustainable use and are tied with the Institute Chico Mendes de Conservao of Biodiversity (ICMBio). Created recently in 2007, one is about an entailed autarchy to the Ministry of the Environment of the Federal Government that integrates the National System of the Environment (Sisnama). Being its main paper to manage the 11 Units of Conservation, that are areas of important ecological value, as it is the case of the APA Capivari – Monos, fit to the institute to execute the actions of the national politics of Units of Conservation, being also exerted the function of: to consider, to implant, to manage, to protect, to fiscalize and to monitor the UCs, consisting then of vital importance for the APA.

Itaparica Water

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Its hidrogrfica basin represents 8% of domestic territory and 57% of the area of the half-barren one. They are 32 sub-basins, 168 tributaries and involves 505 cities. Its flow is interrupted by two barrages for energy generation, of Sobradinho and of Itaparica, in the verge between the Bahia and Pernambuco. The waters that feed the San Francisco are proceeding from water of rains and underground reservoirs (aquferos). The pluvial regimen of the region is known that, possesss a regimen of short period, which had to the climate and the rain scarcity in all basin, with low pluviomtricos indices in certain periods of year. The basin of the San Francisco is extensive, 2.800km of extension, meets in this region a varied ecosystem, therefore it cuts five states and its hidrogrfica basin is inserted in seven states, with diverse conditions. The pluviomtrico index in the basin of the San Francisco varies of 1.900mm in its spring in Minas Gerais 400mm in the half-barren hinterland northeastern. The river meets in advanced period of training of degradation, with the deforestation of the ciliares bushes and the areas of springs, with ousting of sewer and garbage – domestic servant and industrial of the mineradoras, pans of it and the farming activity, consequence of the action human being.

This problem is preoccupying, therefore only 5% of the sewer in the cities in the basin possess treatment. Impacts that the Project can cause: It was identified 40 impacts, being 23 of bigger relevance more than, considering that 11 is positive and 12 negatives. Between the positives we can cite: # the increase of offers and the hdrica guarantee, generation of jobs and income, dinamizao of the economy regional, increase of offers of water for the urban supplying, water supply for the agricultural populations, reduction of the exposition of the population the emergenciais situations of drought, dinamizao of the agricultural activity and incorporation of new areas to the productive process, improvement of the quality of the water in the receiving basins, reduction of the agricultural exodus and the emigration of the region, reduction of the exposition of the population the illnesses and deaths, reduction of the pressure on the health infrastructure.

Sustainable Development Piagau

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As in other categories of objective UC of sustainable use it valuation of the permanence of the traditional communities, that is, the agricultural group, with proper forms of social organization, and that it uses the natural resources as condition for its development. Nor all these communities recognize to live inside of a UC much less on which activities are allowed in these spaces. This article approaches the results reached in the period of 2009 of Program AAV, in the RDS Piagau Purus, mainly the perception ambient of these traditional communities on the use of the natural resources, the strategies of protection/monitoring and action of ambient education. METHODOLOGY the Reserve of Sustainable Development Piagau-Purus, possesss an area of 834.245 hectares and encloses the cities of Beruri, Anori Tapau and Coari. N 23,723 was created from the decree, in 5 of September of 2003, with limits with the Rebio Abufari, Aboriginal Land Ayapu Lake, Aboriginal Land Itixi Mitari, National Park Rising of the Jar and Gleba Purus (INCRA). The vegetation of the region is composed for Ecosystems of firm Land, fertile valley and Igaps with Open and Dense Ombrfila Forest of low lands; Pioneering formation Arbrea and Aluvial Arbustiva. In this unit of conservation activities are developed as: chestnut extration; it fishes advertising and of subsistence; agriculture and research.

In accordance with the plan of management of the unit the activities you harness proposals are: Handling of alligators, quelnios, pirarucu and ornamental fish; Fish commercial flour production; It fishes advertising for local fishing; Handling of not lumber forest products (aa, andiroba) and lumber; Ecoturismo. However conflicts exist as the chestnut extration in private lands, fish illegal, illegal hunting, wooden illegal extration and tourism associated with illegal the esportiva hunting. For being categorized as a unit of conservation of sustainable use it had the necessity of the implantation of Program AAV, to fortify the strategies of protection, monitoring and of ambient education in the traditional communities of entorno and inside of the UC.

South Biodiversity

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It does not cause surprise to us that comments that more and more the pressures on the natural surroundings continue increasing with the development, progress of the technology, with ampler uses of potentially harmful processes and with the growth of the populations, being increased the poverty and originating great damages to the planet. The Program of postgraduate of the specialty Management of the quality and productivity of Phases, of the University of Carabobo been seriously has worried and active by this reality and for it has come collaborating with the community, region companies with the participation of communications, seminaries and conferences on this topic, yet what it concerns the environmental contamination, preservation of the atmosphere, with the purpose of to stimulate the commitment of the nation, especially the State in order to give to passage to an environmental culture that allows to protect our natural resources, We know that the finite resources of all the parts of the world as soon as it can do against the accelerated rates of change, that is necessary to create bring back to consciousness on the necessity to preserve the species, that the companies fulfill their social responsibility and that the universities disclose the knowledge and basic information on the reach, repercussions of the biodiversity, ecology, for the guarantee of the survival of the future generations. It is not necessary to forget, that the Earth Summit celebrated by United Nations in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 recognized the world-wide necessity to conciliate the future preservation of the biodiversity with the human progress according to criteria of promulgated sustainability or viability in the International treaty on the Biological Diversity that was approved in Nairobi the 22 of May of 1972, date later declared by the General Assembly of the UN like " International day of the biodiversity German sociologist Elmar Rmpzyk emphasizes that by biodiversity or biological diversity the variability of alive organisms of any source is understood, including the marine terrestrial ecosystems and other aquatic ecosystems among others and the diversity of ecological complexes to which they belong.

Renewable Energy

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Although the generation of hidroeltrica energy is classified with renewable energy, the plant construction hydroelectric plants leads great ambient liabilities, as for example, flooding of great areas, promoting alterations in ecosystems of the regions. An example is the plant hydroelectric plant of Tucuru, installed in the Amazonian forest with area of 2.430 km flooded, that it can compromise local biodiversity, extinguish some species, deprive of characteristics some communities quilombolas and aboriginal reserves. The elio-electric generation became enlarged in the world of form sped up throughout the last decade, reaching the scale of gigawatts. One of the factors that limit investments in aeolian enterprises has been the lack of consistent and trustworthy data. The majority of the available anemometric registers is masked for aerodynamic influences of obstacles, rugosidade and relief. The availability of representative data is important in the Brazilian case, that still it did not explore this abundant and renewable resource of expressive form. In function of the ambient impact brought by the conventional sources of generation of electric energy, one has searched to stimulate, the world-wide level, the use of sources you renewed of energy.

In the Brazilian energy matrix, one strong participation of the use of the energy generated for the great hydroelectric plants is observed that, although to be considered as sources you renewed of energy, need the overflow of vast areas, many times of native forests, for water storage. The alternative sources, as of the generation of aeolian energy, still little are used, although the great potential of maritime winds in Brazil, mainly in the coast of the State of the Rio Grande Do Sul, where if it intends to implant a unit of generation of energy with the use of this potential, more necessarily, in the Lagoon of the Ducks. An important geographic complementaridade between the potentials aeolian and hydraulical in Brazil: in general way, the best ones areas for aeolian exploitation place in the extremities of the electrical system, distant of the generation hydroelectric plant. In this situation, the insertion of aeolian energy in the electrical system improvement its performance, diminishing transmission lines. Investments in the order of R$ 200 MI, gifts in this study, considered high, require based economic feasibility studies in necessary information, with details of the initial investments, markets, processes of manufacture, place of implantation, forms of financings, costs of production, hand of workmanship, maintenance and taxation. These aspects had been analyzed in the present work and were concluded favorably to the implantation of the unit, which is sustainable economically. 1.2. OBJECTIVES This work has for purpose to carry through the evaluation of the economic viability of the implantation of a unit of generation of electric energy proceeding from the existing aeolian energy in the Lagoon of the Ducks, in state of the Rio Grande Do Sul.

Agricultural Extension

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It presents practical and sustainable solutions for the organization of different spaces. The permacultura is the productive ecosystem elaboration, implantation and maintenance that keep the diversity, the resilience and estabildiade of natural ecosystems, promoting energy, housing and feeding human being of harmonious form with the environment (Mollison et al. 1999 apud Jacintho 2007). Holmgren (2007), through the flower of the permacultura, illustrates the seven necessary fields for a sustainable planning throughout generations: According to Jacinth (2007, p.37), the term appeared in Australia if spread out for the North America and Europe, arriving Latin America and at Brazil in middle of years 80. Today, the continents exist justinian codes of Permacultura in all, in more than one hundred nations. Diverse countries, as Brazil, ' ' they come adopting the Permacultura as agricultural methodology e, even though, schools of all the levels are including the Permacultura in its resume bsico' '.

(TO SOUND, 1998. P. 5) Bill Mollison visits Brazil in 1992 and gives 1 Course of Design in Permacultura (PDC), thus forming, the first Brazilian permacultores that they had had the mission to divulge the method and to create the Justinian codes of Permacultura in Brazil. (PERMACOLETIVO, 2009). Currently, are 14 justinian codes located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, So Paulo, Gois, Mato Grosso of the South, Federal District, Amazon, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande Do Sul and Bahia, that act in the Brazilian territory in different scales. (PERMACULTURA, 2009). These organizations work, through joint actions with the local community and governmental spheres, in such a way to foment the development of practical solutions for the Brazilian society in urban areas how much in agricultural areas. The performance of organizations, as the INCRA (National Institute of Colonizao and the Agrarian Reformation), EMBRAPA (Brazilian Company of Farming Research), DATER/SAF (Department of Assistance Technique and Agricultural Extension of the Secretariat of Familiar Agriculture) and the Agrarian Ministry of Public Works and the Economy, using methods of the Permacultura, promote practical of handling of the natural resources and the impacts of the presence human being more sustainable.


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The outer shell of the planet Earth can be divididir in different compartment: the hydrosphere (or water sphere), the lithospere (or scope of grounds and rocks), and the atmosphere (or the air sphere). The biosphere is the alive matter of the planet. It reaches thus in the other three scopes, although there are no permanent inhabitants of the atmosphere. In relation to the volume of the Earth, the biosphere is only the very thin superficial layer that superficially extends 11,000 meters under the level from the sea to 15,000 meters. One thinks habitually that the life was developed for the first time in the hydrosphere, to brief depths, in the ftica zone. (Nevertheless, at the moment esteem that the life was originated around hidrotermales sources in the depth of the ocean). Then, in the time, they appeared the multicellular organisms and they colonized the bentnicas zones. Photosynthetic organisms emitted, by means of chemical reactions, the gases until arriving at the present concentrations, especially the abundance of oxygen, that characterize to our planet.

The life terrestrial it was developed then, protected of rays UV by the ozone layer. The diversification of the terrestrial species thinks that it was increased by the drift of the continents by aside or, at least, alternatively, to hit. The biodiversity is expressed at ecological level (ecosystem), concerning population (intraspecific diversity), in the species (specific diversity), and at genetic level. The biosphere owns great amounts of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. Other elements, such as the phosphorus, calcium and potassium, also are essential for the life, still are presents in smaller amounts. In the ecosystem and the levels of the biosphere, it is a permanent recycling of all these elements, that are alternated between the mineral and organic states. If it wishes to know more information on partial unloadings partial unloadings enter in Original author and source of the article